Tag Archives: Politics

THE MURDER OF MALCOLM X

Photo: History.

On this date in 1965, Malcolm X is assassinated by rival Black Muslims while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity in Washington Heights.

Born Malcolm Little in Nebraska, in 1925, Malcolm was the son of James Earl Little, a Baptist preacher who advocated the Black nationalist ideals of Marcus Garvey. Threats from the Ku Klux Klan forced the family to move to Michigan. In 1931, Malcolm’s father was murdered by the white supremacist Black Legion. By the time he reached high school age, he had dropped out of school and moved to Boston, where he became increasingly involved in criminal activities.

In 1946, at the age of 21, Malcolm was sent to prison on a burglary conviction. It was there he encountered the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, the leader of Nation of Islam, whose members are popularly known as Black Muslims. Muhammad’s teachings had a strong effect on Malcolm, who entered into an intense program of self-education and took the last name “X” to symbolise his stolen African identity.

After six years, Malcolm was released from prison and became a loyal and effective minister of the Nation of Islam in Harlem, New York. A fiery orator, Malcolm was admired by the African American community in New York and around the country.

In the early 1960s, he began to develop a more outspoken philosophy than that of Elijah Muhammad, whom he felt did not sufficiently support the civil rights movement. In late 1963, Malcolm’s suggestion that President John F. Kennedy’s assassination was a matter of “chickens coming home to roost” provided Elijah Muhammad, who believed that Malcolm had become too powerful, with a convenient opportunity to suspend him from the Nation of Islam.

A few months later, Malcolm formally left the organisation and made a Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. He returned to America as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz and in June 1964 founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity, which advocated Black identity and held that racism, not the white race, was the greatest foe of the African American.

• Read also THE WOMEN OF IRAN VS HIJAB LAW.

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Text: History, Wikipedia.
Featured image by T.A. Charron.

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THE KILLING OF STEVE BIKO

Photo: The Conversation.

This week in 1997, in South Africa, four apartheid-era police officers, appearing before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, admit to the 1977 killing of Bantu Stephen Biko, a leader of grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement.

In 1969, Biko, a medical student, founded an organisation for South Africa’s Black students to combat the minority government’s racist apartheid policies and to promote Black identity. In 1972, he helped organise the Black People’s Convention and in the next year was banned from politics by the Afrikaner government. Four years later, in September 1977, he was arrested for subversion. While in police custody in Port Elizabeth, Biko was brutally beaten and then driven 700 miles to Pretoria, where he was thrown into a cell. On 12 September 1977, he died naked and shackled on the filthy floor of a police hospital. News of the political killing, denied by the country’s white minority government, led to international protests and a U.N.-imposed arms embargo.

A clenched black fist, the informal symbol of Biko’s Black Consciousness Movement.

In 1995, after the peaceful transfer to majority rule in South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to examine decades of apartheid policy and to address the widespread call for justice for those who abused their authority under the system. However, as a condition of the transfer of power, the outgoing white minority government requested that the commission be obligated to grant amnesty to people making full confessions of politically motivated crimes during apartheid. Nobel Peace Prize laureate Desmond Tutu was appointed to head the commission.

In early 1997, four former police officers, including Police Colonel Gideon Nieuwoudt, appeared before the commission and admitted to killing Steve Biko two decades earlier. The commission agreed to hear their request for political amnesty but in 1999 refused to grant amnesty because the men failed to establish a politcal motive for the brutal killing.

Inspired by the death of Steve Biko, Peter Gabriel wrote a song called “Biko” in 1980.

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Featured image: Sowetan Live.

• Read also THE RAINBOW FLAG: THE STORY BEHIND.

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PENTINGNYA PENDIDIKAN LITERASI SEDARI DINI

Buruknya pendidikan dini literasi adalah satu problematika mendasar kenapa penduduk negeri ini mudah sekali manggut-manggut kagum dengan ocehan recehan dan bias dari Denny Siregar beserta panasbung bajer istana lainnya. Yang, parahnya, kemudian berlanjut menggelembung pada dukungan terhadap DPR padahal gamblang benderang para “wakil rakyat” tersebut kebanyakan rekam jejaknya amis, bau pesing, memuakkan. What a sad joke.⁣⁣
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⁣⁣Tidak sederhana. Pendidikan literasi sejak belia memang harus serius dan segera dibenahi.⁣⁣
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⁣⁣#ReformasiDikorupsi #MosiTidakPercaya #SaveKPK

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